Hematopoiesis products: PG2-2000

PG2-2000 Activity Profile

PG2-2000 is a further-refined and better-characterized complex polysaccharide.  It has similar activities as PG2 in that it promotes recovery of white blood cells (WBCs) but PG2-2000 has augmented activities relative to PG2 in that it promotes recovery of red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs).  PG2-2000, tested in vitro and in in vivo murine models of myelosuppression, acts as a multipotential hematopoietic-stimulating agent, promotes recovery of WBCs, RBCs, and PLTs, and alleviates leukopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia associated with myelosuppression.  In addition, it accelerates multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation with both the donor and recipient treated with PG2-2000 to receive the best benefit.  Most importantly, PG2-2000 potentiates the response to G-CSF in models of myelosuppression and autologous bone marrow transplantation.

In vitro assays demonstrated that PG2-2000 triggered significant, dose-dependent release of hematopoietic cytokines such as G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-6 in Peripheral Blood Monocytes.

In a total body irradiation-induced pancytopenia murine model, PG2-2000 was shown to accelerate recovery of WBCs, RBCs and PLTs.  It also improved the RBC and PLT nadir value, and shortened the duration of leukopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia induced by radiation.  Furthermore, in vivo results suggest that combination use of PG2-2000 and G-CSF may provide an alternative therapy to reduce the pancytopenia associated with myelosuppressive regimens for cancer patients in the clinic.

In addition to its effect on myelosuppressed mice, PG2-2000 administered to normal mice increased the number of bone marrow (BM) progenitors/stem cells (CD34+/-, c-Kit+, Sca-1+ and Lin-).  These studies suggested that treatment of the donor and recipient with PG2-2000 alone or in combination with G-CSF may be an effective way to accelerate multilineage reconstitution after myelosuppression and autologous bone marrow transplantation in the clinic.

Chemistry of PG2-2000

PG2-2000 is a chemically-modified preparation of a specific arabinogalactan protein that is extracted and purified, under FDA cGMP guidelines, from the Chinese medicinal plant we designated B2.  Research at Pharmagenesis, Inc. has identified this arabinogalactan protein as being the active component with respect to hematopoiesis.

Investigating and elucidating the structure-activity relationships of PG2-2000 is a vital aspect of our Large Molecule Research.  Understanding the structural basis of the biological activities of PG2-2000 will not only facilitate regulatory approval, but may lead to the development of pharmaceutical successors that are more efficacious, more economical to produce, or more easily administered.  A chemical derivative of PG2-2000 with oral bioavailability, for instance, would be a worthy successor to PG2-2000.

Research and other candidates for hematopoiesis

The herbs that can stimulate the hematopoietic systems are described in TCM to add tone to ‘Qi’ (energy), the Blood, the Yin and the Yang.  These herbs can strengthen or supplement an area of the body that is insufficient or weakened.  They are used to benefit patients who have been ill with chronic or degenerative diseases.

In particular, cancer patients after chemotherapy have developed many symptoms like lethargy, lack of appetite, diarrhea; shortness of breath, shallow breathing, dyspnea on exertion, weak voice, pallid complexion, spontaneous sweating; pale tongue, fear of cold, cold extremities, sore or weak lower back; loss of voice, thirst, dry throat, etc.  According to TCM theory, these symptoms are associated with Deficient Qi, Deficient Blood, Deficient Yang and Deficient Yin.  It is the expertise of Pharmagenesis, Inc. to associate the TCM symptom description with the appropriate Western biological and medical parameters.


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